Müge İpek Konaklı1, Özüm Atasoy2, Oytun Erbaş1,3

1Institute of Experimental Medicine, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey
2Department of Radiation Oncology, Kartal Dr. Lütfi Kırdar City Hospital, Istanbul Turkey
3Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty of Demiroğlu Bilim University, Istanbul, Turkey

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, erythropoietin, exosome, insulin, intranasal administration, mesenchymal stem cells, rifampicin


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disease which does not currently have a fully known treatment. Research over the past 30 years has provided numerous treatment options to correct the underlying neurodegenerative pathology. The drugs investigated in these studies focus on Amyloid beta (Aβ) muscle acceleration, which prevents the accumulation of amyloid aggregates. Despite many critical discoveries, failures in late-phase clinical trials indicated that targeting Aβ pathology alone is not effective in altering disease progression. These discouraged researchers were prompted to search for new approaches, one of which was intranasal release methods. In this review, intranasal drug administration for the treatment of AD and the effects of insulin, erythropoietin, exosome, mesenchymal stem cells, and rifampicin administered by this route on AD will be discussed. It is foreseen that definitive treatment possibilities can be developed by further investigating this method.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article.